Open Acces Policy
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
This journal is open access journal, meaning that all content is freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to full-text articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or author. This is by Budapest Open Access Initiative.
Budapest Open Access Initiative
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the worldwide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.
For various reasons, this free and unrestricted online availability, which we will call open access, has been limited to small portions of the journal literature. But even in these limited collections, many different initiatives have shown that open access is economically feasible. It gives readers the extraordinary power to find and make use of relevant literature. It gives authors and their works vast and measurable new visibility, readership, and impact. To secure these benefits for all, we call on all interested institutions and individuals to help open up access to the rest of this literature and remove the barriers, especially the price barriers, that stand in the way. The more who join the effort to advance this cause, the sooner we will enjoy the benefits of open access.
The literature that should be freely accessible online is what scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Primarily, this category encompasses their peer-reviewed journal articles. Still, it also includes any unreviewed preprints that they might wish to put online for comment or to alert colleagues to important research findings. There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution and the only role for copyright in this domain should be to give authors control over their work's integrity and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
While the peer-reviewed journal literature should be accessible online without cost to readers, it is not costless to produce. However, experiments show that the overall costs of providing open access to this literature are far lower than traditional forms of dissemination. With such an opportunity to save money and expand the scope of dissemination simultaneously, there is today a strong incentive for professional associations, universities, libraries, foundations, and others to embrace open access as a means of advancing their missions. Achieving open access will require new cost recovery models and financing mechanisms. Still, the significantly lower overall cost of dissemination is a reason to be confident that the goal is attainable and not merely preferable or utopian.
To achieve open access to scholarly journal literature, we recommend two complementary strategies.
I. Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice commonly called, self-archiving. When these archives conform to standards created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their contents.
II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, and no need to stop looking for other, creative alternatives.
February 14, 2002
- Leslie Chan: Bioline International
- Darius Cuplinskas: Director, Information Program, Open Society Institute
- Michael Eisen: Public Library of Science
- Fred Friend: Director Scholarly Communication, University College London
- Yana Genova: Next Page Foundation
- Jean-Claude GuÃ©don: University of Montreal
- Melissa Hagemann: Program Officer, Information Program, Open Society Institute
- Stevan Harnad: Professor of Cognitive Science, University of Southampton, Universite du Quebec a Montreal
- Rick Johnson: Director, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)
- Rima Kupryte: Open Society Institute
- Manfredi La Manna: Electronic Society for Social Scientists
- IstvÃ¡n RÃ©v: Open Society Institute, Open Society Archives
- Monika Segbert: eIFL Project consultant
- Sidney de Souza: Informatics Director at CRIA, Bioline International
- Peter Suber: Professor of Philosophy, Earlham College & The Free Online Scholarship Newsletter
- Jan Velterop: Publisher, BioMed Central